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Secondary Science

Models cheat sheet

Is your child navigating the challenges of a fresh academic year? We understand the mix of excitement and apprehension as they embark on a new semester. We share your concerns, and that is why we have crafted practical cheat sheets to support your child’s revision.

In this piece, let us delve into a key lower secondary science topic: Models. We will equip your child with a valuable cheat sheet designed to make your child’s learning journey smoother. But now, let us look at what your child will learn in this topic. Ready to empower their success?



Discover the fascinating world of scientific models – a key aspect of your child’s lower secondary science curriculum. Models are more than just diagrams; they are tangible, conceptual, or mathematical tools that bring abstract and invisible phenomena to life.

In this exploration, students will delve into the significance of scientific models, unravelling the mysteries of the Ray Model of Light, the Particulate Nature of Matter, Models of Cells, and the intricate Models of Atoms and Molecules.

Join us as we unravel these concepts, providing insights that will deepen your child’s understanding of the wonders hidden within the realm of science.


Ray Model of Light

This foundational concept goes beyond textbooks, offering a hands-on understanding of how light rays move and interact. From unravelling the mysteries of reflection to exploring the wonders of refraction, students will not only grasp the theory but also discover the real-life applications of these phenomena in their daily experiences.


Question 1: A collector views a postage stamp of height 1.5cm through a lens. The lens is 2.0cm from the stamp and the ratio of height of image to height of object is 3.0. Complete the full-scale ray diagram to determine the image of the stamp.

models of light q1


models of light answer


The Particulate Nature of Matter

This concept is a gateway to understanding the fascinating properties and behaviours of different states of matter. Your child will uncover the secrets hidden within solids, liquids, and gases, gaining not only knowledge but a hands-on grasp of how matter behaves in different conditions. It is a journey that goes beyond the classroom, giving your child a tangible connection to the building blocks of our physical world.


Question 2: Use the relationships of gas in related situations and to solve qualitative problems by recalling and explaining the following relationships using the kinetic model.

(a) A change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume is cause by a change in temperature of the gas.

particulate nature of matter q1

Answer: When temperature increases, thermal energy is transferred to the molecules and gaseous particles gain kinetic energy. This causes the molecules to move faster and increases both the frequency of collision against the wall and the force exerted by each gaseous particle. Since pressure is force per unit area, pressure will increase.


(b) A change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is caused by a change in volume of the gas.

particulate nature of matter answer


particulate nature of matter answer


Model of Cells

The Model of Cells, often referred to as the Basic Unit of Life, is a concept that invites students to unravel the mysteries of plant and animal cells, delving into their unique behaviours and essential functions. Your child will not only grasp the intricacies of cellular life but also develop a profound appreciation for the building blocks that make up all living things.


Atoms and Molecules

Students will unravel the mysteries of protons, neutrons, and electrons, discovering the unique charges that define these tiny particles. The exploration goes further as your child discerns the distinction between individual atoms and the dynamic partnerships that form molecules. It is a microscopic adventure that brings the basics of chemistry to life, igniting curiosity and understanding in your child’s exploration of the building blocks of matter.


models cheat sheet

Models Cheat Sheet

Now that you have got a glimpse into what your child is diving into, it is crucial to recognise that this foundation sets the stage for more advanced learning. To support your child’s journey, we have put together a user-friendly Models cheat sheet packed with all the essential content.

Don’t miss out – grab your free download of the lower secondary Models cheat sheet here.

Plus, take advantage of a FREE Science trial class with our experienced educators! By registering, you will also receive an extra cheat sheet on Diversity, a crucial topic for your child’s understanding. Express your interest in the trial class by filling out the Google form here. Armed with our fantastic resources and dedicated educators, your child will face their WAs with confidence and competence.